"The Coral Court is the not only a stunning example of architecture worthy of preservation but for generations of travelers, it remains a bastion of hospitality that has evolved into a venerable Route 66 icon. Those of us who value Coral Court remember all the cars filled with weary souls cruising by gleaming tile walls. We see shadowy shapes behind glass block windows and a big lighted sign acting as a beacon for so many. We hear the laughter of the children playing beneath the shade trees. Tourists, salesmen, honeymooners, and road warriors of every description found refuge at the Coral Court. Just after the motor court opened in 1941, young men going off to war stayed there with wives and sweethearts. Some of those GIs never returned. There are women whose hair has grown gray that recall every detail of that last night spent with their young man - wrapped in each others arms with only the sound of passing traffic on the Mother Road to serenade them. To all of those people and for so many, many more, Coral Court is a special place - an extra special place." Michael Wallis Author of Route 77: The Mother Road1 The Coral Court motor court stood in South St. Louis County on Route 66, at 7755 Watson Road, as the finest existing example of a Streamline Modern motor court, indeed it stood as a three dimensional representational definition of what the Streamline Modern Art Decor style of architecture was. But the story of Coral Court is more than the sad tale of the birth and death of an apex of a commercial architecture typography and an area landmark, it is also the story that parallels the birth and death of Americas Main Street and this countrys evolution away from the unique and exciting, toward the common and mundane. This story begins with the story of the road itself. As early as 1800, Americans brought the need for good roads to the attention of their government, but the railroads quelled that need temporarily. During the Civil War, many campaigns were won and lost based on the speed of an armys travel between battles. In 1867, after the close of the war, the popularity of the bicycle brought the issue of roads to the forefront, and on a small scale, organizations like the American Wheelmen were able to successfully lobby for road improvements around the Eastern cities. In 1893, manufacturers began mass producing and selling automobiles in this country. A very expensive novelty at first, the convenience and efficiency of the automobile over the horse and buggy or wagon soon made it an accepted mode of transportation. The element of freedom or direction and time schedule made automobiles more popular than trains. Motorists could drive their horseless carriage anywhere they wished at any time they wished. The single greatest problem that early motorists encountered was impassable roads. Road technology was still based on following the well worn path and praying that mud holes were not too deep. It wasnt until 1909 that Portland Cement was introduced and it became possible to lay concrete slabs to drive upon. However, the excessive cost of this pavement kept it from being widely used in its first decade and it could only be found in the downtown areas of larger cities. The best a cross country motorist could hope for was gravel, and even this was relatively uncommon. The Office of Public Road Inquiry, which later became the Bureau of Public Roads, was opened under the Department of Agriculture in the 1890s, but its primary focus was the study of the roads problem, and it took little action. Its concerns were mail delivery, produce delivery, and educational transportation, not cross country travel. In the absence of help from the federal government, state and local governments took on the issue of improving the roads by creating "trails" and trail associations. These loosely knit groups usually consisted of business men and farmers, with the help of local officials, who would designate, improve and maintain a roadway in a section of the country. This roadway was usually chosen by the group as important and economically vital to the group. The groups would mark the trails as they were economically able to, with markings which usually consisted of combinations of various colors of stripes on some of the fence posts that lined the side of the trail. Because these associations were not organized on a national scale, each group designated their trail in their own best interest. Trails often overlapped each other, split in two different directions, or just ended nowhere near the beginning of another trail. Maps were distributed as business advertisements for businesses along the trail and purposefully excluded other trails. Motorists were left frustrated and often lost. In 1915, S. H. "Coin" Harvey, of Monte NE, Arkansas, organized the Ozark Trails Association to encourage the improvement of roads in the Midwest through the Southeast. The public fell in behind the Ozark Trails Association, and many roads were quickly improved using volunteer help. In 1919, at the annual meeting of the Association, long time road advocate and businessman, Cy Avery, was elected as vice-president of the Association. Avery was from Oklahoma, a new state which desperately needed better roads, and he quickly became the driving force behind the Association for rallying the support of the public and government officials, and developing better road grading methods. In 1923, Avery was appointed to be a State Highway Commissioner of Oklahoma, and in 1924, he was appointed to the American Association of State Highway Officials. Also, in 1915, the federal government was coming under pressure from the States and the public, to use federal money to improve the roads. This led to the Federal Highway Aid Road Act of 1916, which allotted matching federal funds of $75 million to improve important rural roads. This was followed by the Federal Highway Act of 1921, which allotted another $75 million, for the improvement and maintenance of seven percent of rural roads into main connecting roads. But neither of these laws had any real positive affect and they remained just what they were, political moves. The road improvement effort remained squarely on the shoulders of the trails associations. In 1924, the American Association of State Highway Officials petitioned the Secretary of Agriculture for the federal government to take the responsibility for the building and maintenance of main interstate routes from the trails associations, and called for the creation of a system of interconnecting roads of national significance. In 1925, this suggestion was approved by the secretary, and the American Association of State Highway Officials held regional meetings where state, local and representatives of the over 250 trails associations lobbied for the inclusion of their particular roads of interest into the federal road system. The result was the approval of 75,884 miles of road to be improved, paved and marked. Cy Avery played a prominent role in this process and was on the executive committee for the overall approval of the plan, as well as the executive committee for the designation of roads in the Mississippi Valley. Avery, with the support of the officials of Illinois and Missouri, outlined a road that would connect the Midwest and the West Coast, by slicing diagonally from Illinois to Oklahoma, and then proceeding west to California. Opponents quickly pointed out that this plan most greatly benefited Averys interest, by creating an east-west route which passed through Averys home city of Tulsa. The road followed no historic route, traveling south of the Santa Fe Trail and north of the Butterfield Stage route, through the middle of the former Indian Territory, an area that the public, and even Oklahomans, saw as unimportant. The road did not even conform to the north-south and east-west pattern of roads that the committees had already approved. Avery and the committee went forward with their road from Chicago to Los Angeles, and named it Route 60, which had already been agreed upon for the Newport News, Virginia to Los Angeles route. Avery and the committee eventually agreed upon Route 66 as the designation for their road and it was opened in 1926. Now began the long process of improving and paving the road, which was expected to take only a few years, but the work involved was much more difficult and costly than expected. Illinois and California had more financial resources to work with, and had their sections paved first. Indeed, much of their sections were paved even before the Route was designated. The interior states had a much more difficult time. The roadway was paved eighteen feet wide to make the most of the limited funds. A few feet wider and they wouldnt have been able to afford as much road. Finally, in 1937, the last section of Route 66 was paved in Arizona, and at long last, America had a safe, dependable, year round road that linked the East and West. But motorists didnt wait for the pavement. They were touring the country in record numbers even before the federal government established the highways. Motorcars had steadily gained popularity with the general public, and Americans were re-embracing the former frontier spirit of adventure. As early as 1903, motorists were making transcontinental journeys and newspapers and journals were publicizing and romanticizing these adventures. The popularity of auto touring skyrocketed. Cross country travel became a popular pastime for the well to do. Motorists in those days had to be good mechanics as well as good drivers. The need for repairs were common and early automobiles lack of an enclosed passenger compartment, or even a full windshield, left travelers covered with dirt, dust, grease and bugs. At the end of a long day of travel, motorists couldnt imagine walking through the plush lobby of a hotel to find lodging for the night. Hotels of that day catered to train and stage travelers, not auto adventurers, and certainly not those covered with road grime. Overnight accommodations were simply not available for motorists, and the plush hotels did not fit their frontier adventure motif anyway. Early motorists found auto camping to be the logical solution for those seeking to get closer to nature. Early motorists would pack all that they needed to cook, sleep and live and take it with them, pulling over to throw up a tent and build a fire wherever they wished. This became known as "gypsying", and the inherent freedom further popularized auto travel as a pastime. Auto makers and businessmen even sought to profit from the enthusiast by offering vehicles and conversions tailored specifically for auto camping, which incorporated all an adventurer needed into a tight package resembling a modern camper or mobile home. The farmers and land owners who lived along the roads, however, were not nearly as enthusiastic of this camping as the motorists were. These land owners saw only the disruption of their property that the campers caused. "No Camping" signs became common along the roadsides, and local governments passed no camping ordinances. Some towns sought to encourage this tourism, while protecting the property of the local people, and created municipal free campgrounds. Fields of public land were set aside for motorists to camp on. Businesses catering to motorists needs, store and gas stations, popped up around the camps. Eventually speculators sought to profit directly from the camping motorists and farmers began fencing in their own fields to charge motorists to camp in their private camps. Competition developed between the private camps as they became more common, and owners began offering amenities to attract customers. Covered campsites, bath houses, and on site stores were just a few of these amenities. The covered campsites soon led to fully enclosed campsites, and the tourist cabin was born. The first cabins were one room shacks with no fixtures and a common outhouse/bathhouse that was shared with the outdoor campsites. Again competition brought more amenities to attract customers, and beds, chairs, and covered carports were added. As both roads and automobiles developed to be more comfortable, so to did motorists expect more comfortable accommodations. Heating stoves allowed for year round operation of the cabins. Indoor plumbing and bathrooms were later added to further entice customers. Amenities were not the only way to attract customers. Businessmen began to understand that the outward appearance, especially the appearance from the road where their customers were, was just as important. Tourist cabins began to be embellished with decorations and motifs were developed for the overall themes of these camps. Owners wanted passing motorists to see little utopias of immaculately maintained, carefully organized cottage courts, places where motorists would want to stay, and would want to return to. Novelty became equally as important as businessmen began expressing their cabins as Danish villages, log cabins, Indian and Spanish missions, and other vernacular expressions such as wigwams and tee-pees. Businesses began to use the exterior appearance of their building as both a selling point and as advertising. "Modern" became a buzz word in the industry and modern appearance became vital, as each motor court tried to out do the next. This was the business climate that John Carr planned to enter when he planned his motor court in St. Louis County. South St. Louis County was one full-days drive from the beginning of Route 66 in Chicago, and was a logical first-night-stop for travelers on the Mother Road. Carr had chosen the perfect place for his motor court, one mile west of the St. Louis City limits, in what would soon become the Village of Marlborough. It was an ideal stopover for weary travelers who didnt want to deal with the hectic atmosphere of the downtown and was a good starting point for the second days journey through the Ozarks. Carr acquired 8.73 acres at 7755 Watson Road (Route 66). This land comprised 9 undeveloped residential lots of the Marlborough Manor Subdivision. Six of the deeds had restrictions against the lands use for tourist cabins, but the remaining 23 had no such restrictions. Car selected Adolph L. Struebig, a local architect of German descent, to design his tourist court. Struebig had worked for the firm of Nolte and Nauman before he moved to House Springs in neighboring Jefferson County, and opened his own practice in the St. Louis area. Struebig later moved to Illinois and eventually retired to Satellite Beach, Florida. Struebig later described his design process as follows: "Money was no object. Johnie was willing to go the limit. I used to take my sketch board and wed sit on Highway 66 and I'd show him what I proposed to do. I'd show him where the trees would go and how the shadows would fall. I just tried to please him and go all out because I knew he wanted something unique." 2 Struebigs creation was indeed unique. It fulfilled Carrs requirements for a group of stand out buildings that would advertise themselves and stood as one of the best examples of high Depression Era Streamline Modern architectural style. The original court consisted of ten, single story, two unit buildings, carefully arranged on the site, with a larger office unit closest to Watson Road. The cabins themselves consisted of two rooms at each end of the building, with a pair of garages in between to keep the automobiles from cluttering the court. The architectural expression of the office and cabins was ultra modern, with flat roofs, curved corners, and a smooth, planar finish. Architex glazed ceramic tile was veneered over the concrete block walls for ease of cleaning and an enhanced smooth effect. The primary tile color was golden-honey (coral) with three horizontal courses of reddish-brown tile at the tops of the windows and at the top of the parapet wall to accent the horizontally of the buildings which were longer than they were deed. Some of the windows were conventional three part louvered, but the majority of the glazing was made up of glass block, which was used in the streamlined ends of the buildings as well as the semi-circular projections at the front, near the garages. This glass block was used in a similar fashion as translucent bay windows, with large areas of block stepping up or down to the left or right, or toward the center. There were two basic plans for the paired units, the single room, and the single room with the additional Murphy bed. These types were similar but just different enough to offer variety within the court. This variety was further enhanced by the variations in the glass block patterns and in the horizontal banding. The overall composition appeared to be a combination of several related design studies which went together very well and composed a harmony among themselves. Elsey Hamilton describes the overall effect as: "The syncopated rhythm created by the repetition of unequal curves is given further complexity by the irregular placement of the two-room units on the site, as well as the slight variations in the unit plans and the patterning of the glass brick." 3 Each cabin was adorned with its own Art Decor lettered, brushed aluminum number, framed in reddish-brown tile. Over each garage were a pair or trio of glass blocks covered lights whose placement mimicked the headlights of an automobile. The office building was a larger building, both longer and taller, with larger bays and a metal canopy covering its entry. This building contained both the business office and the on site housing of the management and had a basement garage for two cars. The office originally had a tower which was banded horizontal tile courses and capped with a beacon light to attract motorists. The landscaping of the Court was beautifully done and immaculately kept by Carr. Buff colored stone posts connected with heavy black chain lined the edge of the site toward Route 66, and large turning stone gateways marked the entrances to the drives on the property. The driveways were of blacktop which was resealed annually to keep the pavement appearing freshly painted. The lawn was planted in thick, lush, well trimmed zoysia grass and pin oak trees were interspersed between the cabins. The effect of the colors, the black of the drive, the green of the grass, the golden-yellow of the cabins with its reddish-brown accents, and the blue of the sky, with the shadows of the trees dancing on the tile and lawn had a very surreal and relaxing effect. But the Coral Court was not just a pretty face. It offered amenities that were not available at other motor courts. The garages, not uncommon among area courts, had remotely controlled doors, allowing the motorist to pull straight into them. This feature offered privacy, safety, security, and protection from the elements, but the seemingly excessive privacy later led to distrust among the local public and the perception that the patrons had something to hide or be ashamed of. Each room had its own private bathroom with hot and cold running water and a shower, no group public bath or out house like other courts. Each room also featured hot water radiant heating systems, with hot water heating coils run in the floor slab of each room. Patrons had no need to fear stepping onto a cold floor after a restful nights sleep, and that restful nights sleep was enhanced by the Courts use of Beauty rest mattresses and box springs. The original units were constructed at a cost of $7,000, and were opened in 1942. Carr soon doubled the number of units and added a swimming pool, and later expansions increased the total to 77 rooms, but some of the later units did not follow the Streamline Modern originals and were of conventional balloon frame with siding construction. Rooms were available for overnight accommodations and also for four hour rest stops. Rest areas on highways did not come about until the late 1950s with the interstate highways, and these short rest stops were certainly appreciated by weary motorists who needed to take a break from driving. Carr couldnt have picked a better time to open his motor court. World War II was in full swing and Route 66 was the nations primary road for GIs traveling to and from military bases and for the transportation of war products and military machinery. For many years, a vacancy couldnt be found along the highway because demand was so high. After the war, carloads of vacationing families filled the Mother Road and everyone wanted to see America by automobile. This was the boom time for tourism, and the Court was a popular stop off for families. But controversy soon surrounded the Coral Court, and John Carr was no stranger to scandal. Carr reputedly operated a brothel in Midtown St. Louis before he opened the Court, and he was friends with several area brothel owners. It was also said that he had deep underworld connections and was in "tight" with the Marlborough Police and Village officials. Just before Carr opened the Court, in 1940, J. Edgar Hoover called for an investigation of all motor courts, alleging their connection with drugs, desperadoes, and declining moral values. Hoovers assertions came to partial fruition in 1953 when Carl Austin Hall kidnapped, ransomed, and murdered Bobby Greenlease, the six year old son of a prominent Kansas City auto dealer. Hall fled Kansas City to St. Louis, with his accomplice Bonnie Brown Heady. Hall dropped Heady off at a downtown apartment and took a cab and the $600,000 ransom that he had already collected, and went looking for a little excitement and a good time. Hall eventually ended up at Coral Court with, depending on the source, between one and three ladies of easy virtue, and possibly several others, who spent the night there. Police were led to Hall the next morning after Hall made a telephone call from the Court to Heady at the downtown apartment. When police found Hall, he had only half of the ransom money left. Speculations as to the impossibility of spending $300,000 in one evening in 1953 led to the rumor that the money had been stashed in the hollow block walls of the cabin that Hall was found in. Hall refused to tell authorities what had happened to the money and took the secret with him to the grave when he was executed in the Missouri gas chamber. This incident forever marred the reputation of Coral Court. The public saw the Court as a seedy and unsavory place that was frequented by prostitutes and outlaws on-the-lam. St. Louis County Police agreed with this idea and frequently staked out the Court but were careful not to notify Carr or the Marlborough Police. Many locals even alleged that Carr himself operated a prostitution ring out of the Coral Court, but no evidence to this has ever been found, although the allegation was only reinforced by the general misconception that the four hour stopover was thought to imply hourly rates. In 1955, John Carrs son by a previous marriage, Bobby Gene Carr, cab driver, novelty salesman, and Korean War veteran, was found dead of multiple knife and gunshot wounds in Illinois in the trunk of his car. Speculations as to John Carrs underworld involvement increased. At close to this same time, in 1954, President Dwight D. Eisenhower began to push for an autobahn-like highway system for the United States. Eisenhower had become fascinated with the efficient and safe German system during World War II and returned home convinced that America needed this system for the national security and the general safety of the public. Automobiles had gotten larger and wider since the time of the construction of Route 66s nine foot wide lanes, and traffic accidents and congestion were beginning to become a problem. The Mother Road became known as "Bloody 66", and tales of particularly treacherous areas such as "Devils Elbow" in the Ozarks became infamous for their toll of human life. The Highway Revenue Act of 1956 called for the construction of multi-lane highways to bypass or be built over the old routes. This new system would bypass population centers and create safe highway speed travel for motorists. This was the beginning of the end of Route 66 and the laid back style of auto touring that the two lane highways fostered. Soon motorists would be flying two abreast down monotonously straight, smooth strips of concrete, totally isolated from all of the civilization that they were zipping past. But just as the paving of the Mother Road took much longer than expected, the even larger scale of the interstate system took even longer to complete, and Route 66 was allowed a longer, slow, graceful death. It wasnt until 1984 that the last section of Route 66 was bypassed by the last of the five interstates that replaced Americas Main Street. These interstates were I-55, I-44, I-15 and I-10. Route 66 was decommissioned as a highway in 1985. Also, in the 1950s, chain motels were beginning to rise in popularity and spread across the country, drawing motorists away from the small, unique, mom and pop motor courts. Admittedly many of the smaller motor courts were of poor quality, but just as many were exceptional. The public didnt want to chance the former for the latter and turned to the dependability of Holiday Inn and Howard Johnsons. By the 1960s, budget chains came into being and the public could now depend on consistent mediocrity nation wide, as opposed to chancing the exceptional or unique. As motorists were drawn away from Route 66 in the 1960s and 1970, Coral Court and all of the businesses along Americas Main Street suffered as they were isolated from their clientele. Coral Court developed a reputation of having a very liberal guest policy, and by the 1970s and 1980s, was widely known among high school students as a favored destination after school dances and proms. In 1989, I worked as a stock clerk at the Drug Emporium, one-half mile east of Coral Court on Watson Road. Every five or six weeks, an employee of the Court would come into the drugstore to shop and would proceed to load two carts, one with toilet paper and the other with 36 count packs of condoms for the condom vending machines that he indicated were in the rooms. This was certainly not something that diminished the magnitude of the rumors about the Court. The Court was certainly not trying to prove the rumors wrong and quite possibly this type of business was the only thing that was keeping the doors open. Bumper stickers stating "Your Place, My Place, or Coral Courts" became popular among Court fans and the younger, more light hearted local population. The tight lipped attitude of the employees at the Court made for even more speculation. Of all the interviews and stories that I have read about the Court, never has a Court employee allowed themselves to be identified by name, but even more enigmatic, the clerks were notorious for refusing to identify patrons or connect incoming calls to patrons rooms. One area businessman sought to get away from the constant phone calls that his office made to him at home. He and his wife moved into a cabin at the Court for several months and the Court employees refused to forward his office calls to him or even recognize that he was staying there. To this day, his co-workers dont believe that he was actually living there and he remembers his stay as the quietest and most relaxing time in his life. John Carrs death in 1984 ended his forty years of impeccable care of Coral Court, and began its final spiral down. Carr left the Court, reportedly worth $1 million, to his wife, Jesse Carr, and the housekeeper. Jesse Carr later married long time employee Robert Williams and they continued to operate the court, but were unable to keep up with the maintenance, and the Court fell into disrepair. By 1987, rumors were circulating that Jesse Carr Williams had optioned the Coral Court property to a developer who planned a strip mall for the site. Preservationists and local fans of the Court mobilized to save the landmark, and the developer gave up on his strip mall plan when he failed to obtain the option to an adjacent lot that he needed for the development to be viable. The Coral Court Preservation Society was formed by local historian and staffers for the County Historical Building Commission, Esley Hamilton, local architects, and Route 66 fans. Hamilton, with the help of the students of one of his historic preservation classes at Washington University in St. Louis, submitted the Coral Court to the national Register of Historic Buildings and it was approved in 1989 as significant despite its being a few years shy of the fifty year old requirement. This status, however, only protects a building from eminent domain, and would not prevent an owner from tearing the historic structure down, only local ordinances could do this, and Marlborough has no such ordinances. By 1992, many of the cabins of the Court were falling apart and suffering from vandalism. Laurent Torno, St. Louis architect and member of the Coral Court Preservation Society, stated that he feared that if the preservation efforts had succeeded, that there wouldnt be enough left to save. He cited poor workmanship as a primary cause of the damage, stating that the masonry and tile work were of poor quality and were beginning to deteriorate. He pointed out that the slab on grade construction had contributed to a severe termite problem and that the framing of several units was totally eaten out. He also stated that many of the foundations were sinking and some had sagged as much as 16 inches. In 1993, the building inspector identified almost half of the buildings of Coral Court as structurally unsound, many of these had already been voluntarily taken out of operation by the management. Faced with a renovation that would cost several million dollars, on a business that wasnt showing enough profit to justify such a large investment, Jesse Carr Williams placed the Coral Court property for sale on the real estate market for $1.5 million, with the stipulation that the cabins be razed and the property no longer be used as a motor court. Jesse stated that this stipulation was for personal reasons and that she wanted to protect the memory of the Court in its heyday and that she would not be comfortable with someone else operating the Court. The Coral Court Preservation Society had been consistently working to this point to keep the court from being sold, but faced with this inevitability, they shifted their focus on preserving the condition of the now vacant buildings and looking into alternative uses that would preserve the remaining structurally sound cabins. Ideas were brought forth for a Route 66 museum, a banquet hall and conference center with motel rooms available, an AIDS hospice, housing for older adults, and an antique mall. The preservationists raised funds through T-shirt sales and charitable benefits and produced an information brochure that was circulated among prospective buyers to publicize the use options that would at least leave part of the landmark intact. The Village of Marlborough had very different plans for the Court. Marlborough is a rather small municipality, around 160 acres, which straddles Watson Road for about a mile, with few commercial businesses and a few more residents. Marlborough has historically been very hungry for increased funding and a larger tax base. Although John Carr had been a valued businessman in the Village, and always had many advocates on the Village board, his now failed motor court had been as a blight on the municipalitys mail thoroughfare. When a developer came forward in 1994 with plans for 45 single family residential properties, the Village board saw dollar signs in their eyes and the 45 prospective new taxpaying households, the board immediately recommended condemnation of Coral Court and in early 1995 rezoned the property as residential. As demolition approached, the National Museum of Transportation in St. Louis approached the developer and was granted permission to remove two buildings to be rebuilt at the museum as part of a Route 66 themed display. Volunteers from the Navy Seabees and several youth groups worked eight to 10 hour days, for several weeks, to carefully disassemble and document the two buildings and placed them in storage where they will remain until sufficient funds are raised for the reconstruction of one building at the museum. The museum is currently fund raising for the expected $80,000 that it needed for the project by selling commemorative etched glass blocks. In the summer of 1995, the remainder of the Coral Court was flattened, and St. Louis lost an icon forever. Today construction continues at what was 7755 Watson Road, on 45 single unit houses of negligible architectural value. It may take years for many St. Louisans to realize just what they have lost. And why was it lost? Because Americans wanted to travel even faster and didnt want to bother with the uniqueness that was allowed for and even encouraged by a slower pace of life. Because Americans didnt want to chance finding a very special place but would rather rely on dependable monotony. Because a business that is not profitable is not worth saving, even if it is of historic and artistic value. And because a widened tax base will put more money in one small municipalitys coffers. With these values, our country will soon be devoid of all things special and unique, and will become a consistent wasteland of the utterly mundane. ENDNOTES 1 Wallis, Michael, from Coral Court Information Brochure, 1994. 2 Porter Jr., E. R. "In a Class by Itself: The Coral Court Motel, A place with Quite a Past, May Not Have a Future." St. Louis Post Dispatch. 4 October 2987: H1. 3 United States Department of the Interior, National Parks Service. National Registration Form Coral Court Motel: 2. Bibliography Adams, Marie. 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Glover, Cindy. "Trustees Target Coral Court Motel for Demolition." St. Louis Post Dispatch. 22 December 1994. Glover, Cindy. "Trustees Will Ask County to Condemn Coral Court Motel." St. Louis Post Dispatch. 8 December 1994. Grauwels, Patrick and Moore, Bob. Route 66; a Guidebook to the Mother Road. Del Mar, California: USDC. Hamilton, Esley. "A Gem of the Road; Coral Court." News Journal, The Society of Commercial Archeology. Vol. 9, Nos. 1-3, (Fall 1987): 1,3. Holleman, Kathryn. "Wreckers Ball Swings Closer to Coral Court." St. Louis Post Dispatch. 13 February 1995. Jones, Jr., Malcolm. "The Highway Thats the Best." Newsweek. 16 November 1992: 92-95. Kelley, Susan Croce and Scott, Quinta. Route 66. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1988. Lammert, Greg. "Gone But Not Forgotten; Landmark Motel Sparks Development Interest." South County Journal. 9 March 1994: 6A. Leach, Sara Amy. "A Stylish, Modern Past." Lodging. July 1994: 100. Learner, Neal. "Art Deco Jewels; Exhibit captures Unique Style of Citys Buildings From 1920-40." County Star Journal. 5 September 1993. Leibs, Chester H. Mainstreet to Miracle Mile; American Roadside Architecture. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995. Marigolies, John. Home Away From Home; Motels in America. New York: Bulfinch Press, 1995. Massey, James C. and Maxwel, Shirley. "Art Deco and International Styles." Old House Journal. March/April 1992: 56-60. McCue, George and Peters, Frank. A Guide to the Architecture of St. Louis. Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press, 1989. McGuire, John M. "Deep Sixty-Sixed; Coral Court, A Motel With a Past Closes." St. Louis Post Dispatch. 18 August 1993: B1. McGuire, John M. "Sad State of Affairs." St. Louis Post Dispatch. 22 August 1993: C1, 13. Merkel, Jim. "Shed No Tears Over Coral Court." County Journals. 17 May 1993. Meyers, Avis. "Getting Kicks on Route 66; Memories of Valentines Day Rendezvous at Coral Court." St. Louis Post Dispatch. 22 February 1993. Miles, David. "Sleeping Quarters; Haughty and Naughty Hotels of St. Louis." St. Louis Life. March 1995: 14. Miller, Steve. "R.I.P. Coral Court." St. Louis Post Dispatch. 28 August 1993. Murphy, Kevin, "Ball Rolling to Save Coral Court." South County Times. 10 December 1993. Murphy, Kevin. "Hotel Time, Motel Time...Last Call for Historic Route 66 Coral Court." South County Times. 13 August 1993. Murphy, Kevin. "Landmark Coral Court Motel May be Closing Along Rte. 66." Webster-Kirkwood Times. Murphy, Mike. "Coral Court to Shut Down, Official Says." County Journals. 4 August 1993: 1A, 7A Murphy, Mike. "Group Discusses Ideas for Coral Court Site." County Journal. 15 December 1993. Murphy Mike. "Group Pursues Multi-Use Concept for Coral Court." South County Times. 12 December 1993. Murphy, Mike. "Group Works to Save Motel." South West County Journal. 21 November 1993. Murphy, Mike. "Ideas for Preserving Coral Court Presented." Webster-Kirkwood Journal. 25 November 1993: 16A. Murphy, Mike. "Marlborough Traps Stray Animals." South West County Journal. 12 December 1993. Nies, Jay. "Coral Court Enthusiast Creates Motel Memorabilia." West End Word. 19 October 1995. Nies, Jay. "Future Looks Bleak for Coral Court Motel." Webster-Kirkwood Times. 20 January 1995. Nies, Jay. "Houses Slated for Coral Court Site." South County Times. 10 February 1995. "Officials Approve the Sale of Old Coral Court Motel." St. Louis Post Dispatch. 12 January 1995. Oliver, Dan. "Coral Court May Face Headache Ball." St. Louis Post Dispatch. Porter, Jr., E. F. "In a Class by Itself: The Coral Court Motel, A Place With Quite a Past, May Not Have a Future." St. Louis Post Dispatch. 4 October 1987: H1. "Remnant of Coral Court Must Now be Rebuilt." St. Louis Post Dispatch. 24 May 1995. Schlinkman, Mark. "Group sets Out to Save Coral Court; State Organization Hopes to Keep Route 66 Flavor." St. Louis Post Dispatch. 22 November 1992. "Shameful History." South Side Journal. 19 February 1995: 4A. Snyder, Tom. Route 66 Travelers Guide and Roadside Companion. New York: St. Martins Press, 1995. "Spark Needed for Coral Court." St. Louis Post Dispatch. 29 November 1993. Sweeney, Thomas W. "Courting Coral; Streamline Style in St. Louis." Preservation News National Trust for Historic Preservation. November 1988: 1, 19. Targounik, Diane M. "Memory Lane; Artistic Brick Etcher Pays Homage to Route 66." St. Louis Post Dispatch. 16 June 1993: 3B. "Too Late to Save the Coral Courts?" St. Louis Post Dispatch. 9 October 1987. United States Department of the Interior, National Parks Service. National Register of Historic Places Registry Form, Coral Court Motel. 1988. Viets, Elaine. "A Summons to Court." St. Louis Post Dispatch. 3 April 1988. Viets, Elaine. "Coral Court Countdown; Efforts to Save Old Motel Seem to Have Failed." St. Louis Post Dispatch. 14 February 1995. Viets, Elaine. "Coral Court Needs a Hand." St. Louis Post Dispatch. 4 May 1995: 3G. Viets, Elaine. "Coral Courts Private Executive Suites; Even Assistant Couldn't Reach His Boss During Temporary Stay." St. Louis Post Dispatch. 24 May 1988. Viets, Elaine. "Heres Why Its Wise to Save Coral Court." St. Louis Post Dispatch. 22 September 1993. Viets, Elaine. "How About Selling PSLs to Save Coral Court?" St. Louis Post Dispatch. 22 February 1993. Viets, Elaine. "Hundreds are Shirting the Issue." St. Louis Post Dispatch. 16 February 1988. Viets, Elaine. "Its Just a Few Bucks for the Historic Coral Court." St. Louis Post Dispatch. 12 April 1994: 3D. Viets, Elaine. "Keeping the Court From Losing Its Shirt." St. Louis Post Dispatch. 21 January 1988. Viets, Elaine. "Marlborough Sees Cash in Coral Court." St. Louis Post Dispatch. 15 September 1993. Viets, Elaine. "Museum Will Save Part of Coral Court." St. Louis Post Dispatch. 10 May 1995. Viets, Elaine. "The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly of 1994." St. Louis Post Dispatch. December 1994: 3G Viets, Elaine. "This Time, Coral Court Doesnt Mean Clandestine." St. Louis Post Dispatch. 1 December 1993. Vodicka, Raymond W. "Group Offers Aid for Coral Court." St. Louis Post Dispatch. 28 January 1988. Wallis, Michael. Route 66; The Mother Road. New York: St. Martins Press, 1990. Webb, Susannah. "The End; Coral Court Closes Leaves St. Louis Landmark Vacant." South West County Journal. 15 September 1993: 1A, 4A. Webb, Susannah. "Historian Hunts for Sympathetic Buyer." South West County Journal. 15 September 1993; 1A, 4A. Witzel, Michael. Route 66 Remembered. Osceola, Wisconsin: Motorbooks International, 1996. Young, Lauren. "Americas Main Street." National Parks. March/April 1991: 30-37.
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